From Phoenix, AZ, to Anchorage, AK, allow 6-7 days of hard driving (about 600 mi/day). Total driving distance is 3,667 mi. You could potentially make it in fewer days if you are sharing driving duties, don't need much sleep, and are in a major hurry. Two weeks would give you time to actually see the sights and enjoy your trip! (Don't miss Liard Hotsprings in British Columbia!!)
If you are driving, you will need to buy a recent edition of the Milepost (milepost.com). You can get it online or probably around the border crossing into Canada (check gas stations or visitor's center). My recommendation is to be safe and get it in advance!